It's also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County Northern Schleswig; now part of the Region of Southern Denmark in Denmark. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne 's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since , the northern frontier of Holstein and thus the Empire was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig.
The territory has been divided between the two countries since , with Northern Schleswig in Denmark and Southern Schleswig in Germany. The region is also called Sleswick in English. From early medieval times, the area's significance lay in being the buffer province of Scandinavia and the Danish Realm towards the powerful Holy Roman Empire to the south, as well as being a transit area for the transfer of goods between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea , connecting the trade route through Russia with the trade routes along the Rhine and the Atlantic coast see also Kiel Canal. Roman sources place the homeland of the tribe of Jutes north of the river Eider and that of the Angles south of it. The Angles in turn bordered the neighbouring Saxons.
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The history of Schleswig-Holstein consists of the corpus of facts since the pre-history times until the modern establishing of the Schleswig-Holstein state. The pattern of populated and unpopulated areas was relatively constant through Bronze Age and Iron Age. Later also the contacts increased between the Danes and the people on the northern half of the Jutish peninsula. After the Slavic migrations, the eastern area of modern Holstein was inhabited by Slavic Wagrians Vagri a subgroup of the Obotrites Obotritae.
Schleswig-Holstein question , 19th-century controversy between Denmark , Prussia , and Austria over the status of Schleswig and Holstein. At this time the population of Schleswig was Danish in its northern portion, German in the south, and mixed in the northern towns and centre. The population of Holstein was almost entirely German. The duchy of Schleswig Slesvig was a dependency of Denmark in the 13th and 14th centuries, but from to it was united with Holstein.