In United States, in general, any single adult or a married couple US citizen can be eligible to adopt. In order to do this, the only thing necessary is that the adopters comply with the requirements demanded by the law of the United States. However, international gay adoption is much more complicated, as few countries allow same-sex couples to adopt. The term gay family is also used to describe families made up of two fathers or two mothers and their children, who may have different origins:. Since women can conceive their own children, unless there is a serious fertility problem, gay adoption is more common in male than female couples. In the following sections we will comment on both types of adoption when the adopters are a couple of men or women.
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LGBT adoption in the United States - Wikipedia
Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in twenty-seven countries as well as several subnational jurisdictions and dependent territories. Furthermore, some form of step-child adoption is legal for same-sex couples in five countries. Given that constitutions and statutes usually do not address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples. However, scientific research consistently shows that gay and lesbian parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as those reared by heterosexual parents. The existing body of research on outcomes for children with LGBT parents includes limited studies that consider the specific case of adoption. Moreover, where studies do mention adoption they often fail to distinguish between outcomes for unrelated children versus those in their original family or step-families, causing research on the more general case of LGBT parenting to be used to counter the claims of LGBT-adoption opponents. Despite the small sample, and the fact that the children have yet to become aware of their adoption status or the dynamics of gender development, the study found no significant associations between parental sexual orientation and child adjustment.
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We first hear of out LGBTQ parents around the time of World War II, mostly in the context of cases that denied them child custody after divorce from different-sex, cisgender spouses. Several other states continued to ban unmarried couples, though, effectively stopping same-sex couples from adopting until marriage equality became federal law in In the s, too, female couples and single women increasingly began to start their families together through pregnancy. In , the Sperm Bank of California opened as the first fertility clinic in the country to serve this market although many queer people had been doing home inseminations for years before. In , Matt Rice became possibly the first transgender man to give birth in the U.
As many as six million American children and adults have an LGBTQ parent, and many of these families have been formed by adoption. Check out these stats:. Keep in mind that much of this data is compiled on gay and lesbian adoption since little information is available on adoption by bi-sexuals, transgender and those who identify as queer or gender nonconforming. While we have seen large shifts in acceptance of gay and lesbian adoption, discrimination still exists. In a national survey of gay and lesbian adoptive parents, nearly half reported experiencing bias or discrimination from a child welfare worker or birth family member during the adoption process.