The Glozel artifacts are a collection of over 3, artifacts , including clay tablets, sculptures and vases, some of which were inscribed, discovered from to in the vicinity of French hamlet of Glozel. Variously dated to at times Neolithic , Iron Age and Medieval times, the finds initiated a series of claims, counterclaims and heated debates among archaeologists. The objects were all initially dismissed as a hoax. It also stated that the site included forgeries, author unknown. Freeing the cow, the Fradins uncovered an underground chamber, with walls of clay bricks and 16 clay floor tiles, containing human bones and ceramic fragments.
Viking 'treasure' of rare artifacts revealed on a long-lost mountain trail
Chronological dating - Wikipedia
The enigma of iron tools that predate the Iron Age has long puzzled archaeologists. Over decades evidence accrued that the iron was of meteoric, not terrestrial, origin. Now Albert Jambon of the French Museum of Natural History has reanalyzed a collection of artifacts going back as much as 5, years in age, and found that every single one was made of meteoritic metal. Based on an innovative geochemical approach, enabling distinction between terrestrial from extraterrestrial forms of iron, he found zero evidence of precocious smelting during the Bronze Age, Jambon reports in the Journal of Archaeological Science. Of course, ancients might have been smelting iron earlier than we think. Perhaps we simply haven't found the evidence.
How can we age metal items?
Radiocarbon dating is a key tool archaeologists use to determine the age of plants and objects made with organic material. But new research shows that commonly accepted radiocarbon dating standards can miss the mark -- calling into question historical timelines. Archaeologist Sturt Manning and colleagues have revealed variations in the radiocarbon cycle at certain periods of time, affecting frequently cited standards used in archaeological and historical research relevant to the southern Levant region, which includes Israel, southern Jordan and Egypt. These variations, or offsets, of up to 20 years in the calibration of precise radiocarbon dating could be related to climatic conditions. Pre-modern radiocarbon chronologies rely on standardized Northern and Southern Hemisphere calibration curves to obtain calendar dates from organic material.
Over time, carbon decays in predictable ways. And with the help of radiocarbon dating, researchers can use that decay as a kind of clock that allows them to peer into the past and determine absolute dates for everything from wood to food, pollen, poop, and even dead animals and humans. While plants are alive, they take in carbon through photosynthesis. Humans and other animals ingest the carbon through plant-based foods or by eating other animals that eat plants. Carbon is made up of three isotopes.